Educational research

Opinions and commentary on educational issues and concerns

New Publication: "Learning-centred parental engagement: Freire reimagined

📥  Educational Leadership

Goodall, Janet. 2017. "Learning-centred parental engagement: Freire reimagined." Educational Review:1-19. doi: 10.1080/00131911.2017.1358697.

Many years ago, Paulo Freire was one of a group of writers who insisted that we look at our processes of schooling differently, that we examine the power relationships in our classrooms clearly. He highlighted what he called the “banking model of education” (Freire 1970), which saw knowledge as a commodity which could be transferred, more or less intact, from teacher to student.
We no longer accept this sort of teaching in our schoolrooms; we have, in general, accepted a constructivist stance and help young people to build knowledge for themselves.
The way we treat parents, however, and other family members, has not altered in the same way. In this article, I used Freire’s banking model of schooling as a lens through which to examine how parents are treated in schools. For all that we have moved a long way in relation to our children’s learning, along the lines suggested by Dewey (Dewey 1986, 1897), Montessori (Montessori 2013) and others as well as Freire, our relationships with families still seem to be stuck in a much earlier paradigm.
In this article, I build on Freire’s work on power and relationships, and marry this to the literature around parental engagement with children’s learning. We have known for some time that one of the best levers we have to narrow the achievement gap between children from different backgrounds is the engagement of their parents in their learning (Desforges and Abouchaar 2003). Many schools still see engagement as being about relationships between parents and schools, rather than about parent’s engagement in learning, per se, yet the value of parental engagement is to be found in the home learning environment (Sylva et al. 2008, Goodall and Montgomery 2013). Freire’s work provides a useful framework for moving toward partnership working with parents, (Goodall 2017), through an examination of the power relationships involved.
This marrying of Freire’s work with the research around parental engagement with children’s learning allows us to move to a series of five statements, which suggest a new view of parental engagement: that school staff and parents both participate in supporting the learning of the child, that both partners value the knowledge that the other brings to the partnership, that there is dialogue around and with the child’s learning, that all actions around that learning are taken in partnership, and that both partners respect the legitimate authority of the other’s role and contribution to the learning of the child. Moving to this point will be neither easy nor quick, but it will be in the best interest of all of our children.


Desforges, Charles, and Alberto Abouchaar. 2003. The impact of parental involvement, parental support and family education on pupil achievement and adjustment: A literature review. London: Department of Education and Skills.
Dewey, John. 1897. "My Pedagogic Creed." The informal education archives; First published in The School Journal, Volume LIV, Number 3 (January 16, 1897), pages 77-80. Accessed 18.01.03.
Dewey, John. 1986. "Experience and education." The Educational Forum.
Freire, P. 1970. Pedagogy of the oppressed. Translated by translated by Myra Bergman Ramos. London: Penguin Books. Original edition, 1996;Originally published by The Continuum Publishing Company.
Goodall, Janet. 2017. Narrowing The Achievement Gap: Parental Engagement With Children’s Learning London: Routledge.
Goodall, Janet, and Caroline Montgomery. 2013. "Parental involvement to parental engagement: a continuum." Educational Review:1-12. doi: 10.1080/00131911.2013.781576.
Montessori, Maria. 2013. The montessori method. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Sylva, Kathy, Edward C. Melhuish, Pamela Sammons, Blatchford Iram Siraj, and Brenda Taggart. 2008. "Final report from the primary phase: pre-school, school and family influences on children-s development during Key Stage 2 (Age 7-11)."165.



New Publication: Identity construction in learning English academic writing in a Japanese university.

📥  Language and Educational Practices

Published, July 2017

The construction of writer identity in English L2 academic writing is not usually explicitly addressed in such writing classrooms, yet it plays a significant role for English L2 students learning to write in academic genres. This study investigates the influences on the construction of writer identity by Japanese university students in Japan learning English academic writing with consideration given to what selves they exhibit in their writing, and how much those selves were shaped by their learning experiences in a required writing course. A total of sixteen students and their four teachers participated in the yearlong study, involving an analysis of students’ written texts, supported by monthly student and teacher interviews and classroom observations. The text analysis was done using Clark and Ivanič’s (1997) possibilities of selfhood as the main framework, operationalizing Martin’s (2000) Appraisal framework for identifying the different selves. Findings showed that the strongest influences on identity construction were from instructors’ expectations, while personal beliefs also contributed. The findings also showed that students were more likely to meet writing task expectations where instructors had more reasonable requirements in terms of voice.

To cite this article:  McKinley, J. (2017). Identity construction in learning English academic writing in a Japanese university. Journal of Asia TEFL, 14(2), 228-243.



GE2017 and Education: a policy ‘battle royale’

📥  Internationalisation and Globalisation of Education

Professor Hugh Lauder is Professor of Education and Political Economy at the University of Bath

The general election provided an opportunity for the political parties to demonstrate a vision for the future of education. In the recent past, more has united the parties than divided them, but this election there has been clear water between them – and as we enter an uncertain future, their manifestos signal very different understandings of the nature of the country and its future.

To say this much is already to court controversy. It’s not clear what ‘this country’ means, so we should be clear that the discussion will be about education policy in England. Despite an unexpected election result, it is worth analysing the Conservative and Labour manifestos because their respective policies on education may tell us much about their thinking and – particularly, in fact, in the context of the surprising election result. The Liberal Democrat manifesto does not provide the clear contrasts which illuminate the debate about the visions for this country.

Judgements about these manifestos will of course be coloured by evidence, but also by prognoses for the future. Here my colours need to be pinned to the mast. As a specialist on the education-labour market relationship, it is quite clear to me that the neo-liberal assumption that the primary aim of education is to provide skilled workers for the economy is now in question. It appears that we are now on the cusp of a new form of capitalism in relation to the labour market. Up until now, the prevailing policy assumption of all the political parties has been that there will be increasing demand for high-skilled work and that graduates will be appropriately rewarded for their productivity. It is for this reason that graduates have to pay high fees for what is perceived to be the advantage they gain from the graduate premium. The politicians have been supported in this view by human capital theories that cannot address current conditions: when we disaggregate the returns to graduates we find that it is only those in the top decile of earnings that conform to the profile assumed by human capital theorists.

The assumption has been that the new technological revolution will raise the demand for skilled workers. But if we look at the returns to graduates in the United States – considered the hothouse of the technological revolution – as I have done with Phillip Brown and Sin Yi Cheung, then two points stand out. Firstly, when we track graduate returns between 1970 and 2010, incomes declined for all except those in the top decile. Secondly, and significantly, those with postgraduate degrees, who we may expect to be at the cutting edge of the knowledge economy, have fared in the same way. The UK data from the Labour Force Survey also shows that there is a wide disparity in incomes according to education credentials; interestingly, top A-level students who have not attended university earn more than median graduates.

Craig Holmes and Ken Mayhew at Oxford have documented the increase in the proportion of graduates who now undertake what were formally non-graduate occupations – an indication that there is deficient demand for high-skilled work. At the present time, some 46% of graduates won’t pay back their loans because they won’t earn enough. When that figure reaches 48%, the government will gain no more from the £9,000 fees than when they were set at £3,000. It is clear that, in the light of these data, we need to re-evaluate the idea that technology will raise the demand for skills; it will for some, but it is more likely to re-stratify the occupational structure to reduce the costs of knowledge-based work. This is, of course, one reason why industrial policy is now back on the agenda: left to itself, the market cannot create enough good quality jobs.

In essence, the optimism which accompanies the dominant view has come face to face with new forms of predatory capitalism. Here the drive is to create cut-price brain power, leading to a situation where learning no longer equals earning. In this emerging form of capitalism, the role of education is wholly uncertain, since the rationale for education under neo-liberalism has been that it is an economic investment in which the relationship between education and wages is relatively straightforward. The case for education will now have to be re-stated in very different terms.

If this account is plausible then it speaks to the two most high-profile policies advanced by the Tory and Labour Parties. The most controversial policy in the Conservative manifesto is that of the promotion of grammar schools or, as it says in the manifesto, selective schools. Such a policy is a clear example of how individual biographies and anecdote have trumped evidence. The research evidence against selective education which led to the creation of the comprehensive system was led by Jean Floud and my friend and colleague A.H. Halsey in the 1950s. They demonstrated how inequitable the 11+ system was. Since then, with more developed databases, the early claims they made have been fully substantiated, notwithstanding the use of questionable data in the Conservative Manifesto. The purpose of the reintroduction of selectivity was ostensibly to promote social mobility; in Britain, as in other neo-liberal societies, destinations are indeed still determined by origins. The debate over this issue has been dismal because it has been assumed that education alone can promote social mobility, ignoring the labour market conditions necessary to turn educational credentials into opportunities. Indeed, data from the United States suggests that the demand for high-skilled work for the younger generation is now in decline. For those of us who have a commitment to evidence-led policy, such a manifesto pledge suggests that reason is not a dominant principle in education policy. It is probably the case that the election has put paid to this pledge, but it nonetheless tells us something about the nature of a party that aspires to turn the clock back.

A similar claim has been made with respect to the Labour mainfesto’s commitment to abolish tuition fees. Commentators on the left, including The Guardian, as well as those from the right have condemned this pledge as, at best, advantaging the already privileged among the younger generation. That would be a reasonable claim if the labour market reflected the assumptions of human capital theory: as we have seen, it doesn’t. In the light of the scenario I have sketched, this Labour policy looks enlightened. As the economic returns to education decline for many, we can expect a battle royale over the role and cost of education. Given the uncertainties that this generation are confronting, the best that our society can do is to provide young people with a good education, which gives them the mental flexibility to see that other worlds and other ways of doing things are possible. This, of course, is what lies behind the European states that do not charge fees and look upon our obsession with the private rates of return from a university education with a degree of curiosity, if not outright scepticism.

This not only applies to university education but to the kind of technical education that FE colleges can provide. It is almost impossible to understand the savage cuts to FE colleges that have taken place under austerity policies. Both parties have something to say on this matter. We see this in the Conservative Party’s aim of linking technical education to degree-level studies, a theme consistent with the idea of social mobility. But before we innovate further, we might do better to re-lay the foundations of what we have.

Here, it is important to examine lifelong learning. It has long been the ‘Cinderella’ in education policy and, indeed, under the period of austerity, education has been front-loaded so there are few second chances available for those in their mid-twenties and older. Now, in the light of radical labour market uncertainty it is needed to provide necessary social and economic support for workers. Singapore is already dipping its toes in this pool with Skills Future, which provides every Singaporean citizen with $500 for further education and skills upgrading. The Conservative manifesto is silent on the issue. Labour is committed to lifelong learning, which starts with a return in the early years to Sure Start, and this too is important for the age we are entering. It may create flexibility for parents, who will certainly need it in their paid working lives, as it will for those who have caring responsibilities that extend above and beyond their children.

When these two manifestos are compared, it is clear which one has the most comprehensive account of educational policy. Of course, those on the right will suggest that this judgement is based on sector self-interest, since I am a university professor – but that is too easy. The points I’ve raised need to be addressed rather than dismissed. It is unclear on what basis Labour have made these commitments and whether they can be paid for, given the straitening times we are entering. But the implications are clearly forward-looking.

For the Conservatives, all appears well with the education system we now have with some tinkering at the edges, mainly in terms – yet again – of qualifications. We might expect Labour’s manifesto to be more radical, but it is squarely in the social democratic tradition, as would be well understood in Germany, for example. There is no suggestion of integrating the public schools with the state sector. There is no attempt to abolish school choice, and there is only a mention of questioning the testing culture, which clearly benefits the political class but neither students nor schools. In these respects, whatever the merits of the debates that no doubt will be forthcoming, this is a moderate set of policies. They may have their roots in the 1980s, but – either by design or happy accident – they are relevant to our future.

See original post here.


New Book: The Dutch Way in Education: Teach, learn and lead the Dutch Way

📥  Educational Leadership, Internationalisation and Globalisation of Education, Management and Governance

The Dutch Way - Teach, Lead and Learn the Dutch Way

Authors: Alma Harris and Michelle Jones

The Dutch way

The global interest in high performing education systems shows no signs of slowing down. The simple and persuasive argument of ‘borrowing from the best’ has placed an international spotlight on a select group of education systems and not others. While undoubtedly there is much than can be learned from cross-cultural comparisons, it is proposed that there is significantly more to be gained from in-depth country specific analysis.

A new book called the ‘The Dutch Way’ looks at an education system that is rarely featured in the global discourse on educational reform. The book includes contributions from a range of Dutch experts with the core aim to illuminate and exemplify different aspects of education in the Netherlands.

It is important to note that the book is not an uncritical celebration of all that makes up Dutch education. Rather, it is an empirically-informed, critically-reflective narrative compiled by those best placed to comment upon what has been achieved and what is still to be achieved within this context.

Overall, the book proposes that the Netherland seems to be 'a best kept educational secret’. The available evidence points to the fact that unlike many other education systems, some of them in the top 5 of PISA, the Dutch system demonstrates equity and excellence (OECD, 2016).

In terms of the percentages of youth who are not in employment, education or training, the track- record in the Netherlands is well below the OECD average. Since 2005, the percentage of young people in this category has not exceeded 5% and on average has stayed at 3.6%. This has profound societal consequences and reinforces the importance of equality of opportunity in Dutch society. The literacy level of adults in the Netherlands is high. The country comes third in international measures after Finland and Japan. The education system in the Netherlands balances strong school autonomy with strong public accountability.

The introductory section of the OECD (2016:11) report states:

‘The Dutch school system is one of the best in the OECD… It is also equitable with a very low proportion of low performers. Basic skills are very good on average while the system minimises weak basic skills among teenagers effectively as the East Asia champions of Japan and Korea. This is supplemented by a strong vocational education and training system with good labour market outcomes. The system is underpinned by a high level of decentralisation, balanced by a national examination system and a strong Inspectorate of Education, school financing which supports disadvantaged students, experimentation and innovation, and good data and research’.

The report concludes; ‘in many respects the Dutch education system stands out from the crowd’ (OECD 2016; 17).
So, what can we learn from the Dutch education system? What can the international community take away? Essentially, the book argues that there are three key lessons from the Dutch education system. First, the Netherlands does not rely on school competition or market forces to secure better educational performance. Conversely, it relies on strong collaboration between teachers, schools and municipalities to raise achievement and attainment.

Second, it does not exclude students from its education system who are disadvantaged, marginalised or are refugees from another country. Instead, it makes every effort to ensure that young people, from all backgrounds, do not leave school early and that they enter the workforce of higher education qualified to participate.
Third, the Dutch system shows that it is perfectly possible to combine educational equity and quality. While some may argue that there is more work to be done in this area, compared to many other countries the Dutch education system is undoubtedly moving in a positive direction.

While the Dutch education system, like all education systems, has shortcomings, its core educational values remain firmly fixed. The fact that the Dutch education system continues to demonstrate that excellence through equity is both imperative and achievable is not only profoundly hopeful but also captures the very essence of ‘The Dutch Way’.


Book Chapter: Understanding Emotions in Mathematical Thinking and Learning

📥  Educational Leadership

By Janet Goodall, Sue Johnston-Wilder and Rosemary Russel

Editors: Ulises Xolocotzin

eBook ISBN: 9780128024898

Hardcover ISBN: 9780128022184

Published Date: 26th May 2017

Available online at -


In our chapter (Chapter 11) in this edited work, we build on ideas of mathematical resilience, that is, becoming resilient, unafraid in the face of mathematics, and illustrate how the notion of mathematical resilience and the growth zone can be used to improve the emotional experience of learning mathematics at home.

We introduce the notion of mathematical safe-guarding as an intrinsic part of the parent's role. We also introduce maths, as experienced typically in the home, as Accessible, Linked, Inclusive, Valued, Engaging (ALIVE) and contrast this with maths as experienced typically in school, as TIRED (tedious, isolated, rote, elitist, de-personalised). On the basis of previous work in the field, we consider that the teaching of maths in many situations may in fact constitute an issue which should be covered by those with a remit for safeguarding.

We demonstrate the power of the 'growth zone model' in bringing parents from mathematical exclusion to inclusion and curiosity, and learning how to apply safeguarding to the practice of learning mathematics.

Based on the literature in the field and an interview process with a mother/child dyad, we suggest that many people have learned to be helpless in the face of maths; it is common to hear people not only proclaim, “Oh, I’m no good at maths” but also to tell their children the same thing, setting maths up as an area of struggle and anxiety, rather than experiential learning. People who experience learned helplessness in relation to maths feel that they have no control over their own learning or work in this area.  This aptly describes the experience of many parents, and was the case for the mother and child whose learning process is described in this chapter.

Through work with “Brenda”, the mother and child both began to overcome their helplessness in relation to maths, and took back control of their own learning.  We offer concrete suggestions for supporting both students and parents to overcome maths anxiety and to become maths resilient.


New Publication: Teachers in international schools: a neglected ‘middling actor’ in expatriation

📥  Internationalisation and Globalisation of Education

This paper is in a special edition of the Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, within the International Human Resource Management (IHRM) field. It introduces, for the first time in IHRM research, the rapidly growing body of expatriate teachers in ‘international schools’. The IHRM literature is usually concerned with the corporate, or assigned, expatriate sent abroad to work for a multi-national company. However, this view is out-dated and in need of major refinement. There are now many groups of workers who have voluntarily sought to work abroad, in the globalized labour-market. The body of international school teachers is therefore presented as a neglected community of non-corporate expatriates, alongside other bodies of ‘new’ expatriates such as professional sports-people or English-language teachers.

This paper reveals to the ‘external’ i.e. non-education world, that the body of expatriate teachers in ‘international schools’ is growing rapidly, and is forecast to reach up to 800,000 by 2026, yet the literature still largely neglects their realities of every-day life as an expatriate. Recent figures estimate that 17,000 British teachers move abroad each year to teach in an international school. Simply put, teachers in international schools have escaped discussion as expatriates yet warrant much greater attention. They have many concerns and challenges that are not currently being fully addressed.
This paper presents a conceptual framework for identifying a possible reason for this neglect; the teachers in international schools can be viewed as ‘middling actors’, caught in a ‘middle space’ of the emergent ‘business expatriate’ concept, between the discussion about corporate expatriates and precariat workers. The emergent discussion about expatriates is attempting to move towards viewing a broad spectrum of actors, and teachers in international schools can be viewed as being somewhere in the middle. The concept of the ‘middling actor’ can be further developed, and international schools offer a rich area of research for expatriate researchers.

Full Reference: Tristan Bunnell (2017) "Teachers in international schools: a neglected ‘middling actor’ in expatriation", Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, Vol. 5 Issue: 2, doi: 10.1108/JGM-07-2016-0033



Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Parental Engagement with Children’s Learning

📥  Educational Leadership


This book, due to be published by Routledge in the spring, examines the issues around the achievement gap between children from different socioeconomic backgrounds.  This gap is larger in the UK than in many other places, and seemingly implacable; one of the main arguments of the book is that we’re looking in the wrong place for the solution.  We know from the research that most of the gap arises from issues outside of school, yet so far, we have concentrated our efforts to narrow the gap on school based practices.

Through an examination of the concepts of social and cultural capital, as well as ideas around race, ethnicity, poverty and school effects, the book argues that the achievement gap is systemic, rather than related only to individuals; to do this, it utilises Gramsci’s concept of hegemony.  That constitutes the problem: the book proposes supporting and increasing parental engagement with children’s learning as a good deal of the solution.

One of the main ideas in the book is that we have put up arbitrary barriers around different types of learning, so that we have come to equate education and even learning with “what goes on in school”; this explains why we’ve concentrated our efforts to narrow the gap around schools and also explains why we’ve had less success than one might hope.

Parental engagement with children’s learning (not with schools, but with learning in the home, or at least outside of schools) has the potential to significantly narrow the achievement gap.  However, this relies on understanding what that engagement means, and also on avoiding some of the problems that have plagued the field.  We need to avoid a deficit model of parents and parenting, as well as an ethnocentric model which sees only one “right” way to parent or to engage.  We also need to be wary of seeing “parent” as a synonym for “mother”, and, as much of the literature does, assuming that we can continue to base parental engagement on mother’s unpaid, unacknowledged work.

The book concludes by offering suggestions for the way forward for practitioners, policy makers and researchers.

The book is by no means the final word in this field, as there is still a very great deal to learn and do, but I hope it will be a useful stepping stone.


Forthcoming Article in Higher Education

📥  Language and Educational Practices, Uncategorised

Rose, H. & McKinley, J. (2017). Japan's English medium instruction initiatives and the globalization of higher education, accepted for publication in Higher Education.

This article analyses a recent initiative of Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) which aims to internationalize higher education in Japan. It then presents an analysis of publicly available documents regarding the policy, collected from all thirty-seven of the participant universities of the Top Global University Project. Findings indicate a positive departure from older policy trends, and the emergence of flexible, unique forms of English language education in Japan’s universities.


New Research Article in Applied Linguistics

📥  Uncategorised

Rose, H. & McKinley, J. (2016). The prevalence of pedagogy-related research in applied linguistics: Extending the debate. Applied Linguistics, advance access online 10 December.

In this article, we respond to the special issue ‘Definitions for Applied Linguistics’, where the past and future of applied linguistics are discussed, and the place of pedagogy in the field’s scope is debated. Findings of the study suggest a number of practice-oriented journals now take the lion’s share of pedagogical research, allowing other key applied linguistics journals to focus on a diverse range of non-pedagogy-related language problems. Nevertheless, in general, pedagogy remains a key topic in the field.


New Edited Volume on Doing Research in Applied Linguistics

📥  Language and Educational Practices

Jims book

Doing Research in Applied Linguistics: Realities, dilemmas, and solutions provides insight and guidance for those undertaking research, and shows the reader, through honest portrayals of the often glossed-over problems experienced in applied linguistics research, how to deal with the challenges of this research involving real people in real settings. The volume features over twenty chapters by experienced and up-and-coming researchers from around the world.