Careers Perspectives – from the Bath careers service

Focus on your future with expert advice from your careers advisers

Monthly Archives: October 2017

The Employers Are Coming – Get Prepared for The Careers Fair!

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📥  Advice, Career Choice, Careers Fairs, Finding a Job, Graduate Jobs, Tips & Hints

The Employers Are Coming – Get Prepared for The Careers Fair!


On Thursday and Friday 19th and 20th October the employers are coming to campus! We will have around 200 employers over the two days from a range of different sectors. This is a unique opportunity for Bath graduates, undergraduates and postgraduates of any year to meet a range of employers in one venue, and will give you the chance to ask questions and assess the types of jobs on offer in an informal setting. Remember this is not just for graduate roles, there are also employers offering summer internships and placements.

The 2017 fair will be held from 11am to 4pm both days, and will be at the Sports Training Village (Netball Courts).

So how do you prepare for the careers fair? Well here are few tips for you:

 

  • Research the employers coming to the fair. The leaflet is out and you can download it from our website.  There are employers from a range of sectors within business and engineering, but we also have charities and public sector represented by organisations such as Cancer Research UK, Department of Education, Welsh Government, Frontline and Teach First. A lot of commercial companies also recruit students from all disciplines so there is something here for anyone, whatever your degree.
  • Plan your visit! Which employers do you want to see and where are they? Make sure to target the employers and find out where they are by checking the Careers Fair map.
  • Prepare questions for the employers you are interested in. The answers may make you decide on what career pathways are best for you or may inspire you to apply for a summer internship or a graduate role. Questions may cover a range of subjects. Maybe you are curious about the day to day work activities, the culture of the workplace? Or maybe you would like to know what type of skills or experiences they are looking for so that you can tailor your job application or prepare for a future interview? Maybe you want to learn more about the industry or the sector, the current issues or developments?  Have a think about what you would like to know and prepare your questions beforehand. Avoid asking the companies what they do, researching the companies or organisations beforehand should help you with that! More ideas for questions to ask can be found here.
  • Wear something nice. No need to wear a suit or business attire, but avoid looking scruffy or avoid looking like you have just just come from the gym. First impressions counts, even at a careers fair.
  • Prepare your CV. You never know when an opportunity arises to give an employer your CV. If you would like some feedback on your CV, have a look at our excellent CV guide and come to one of our quick query appointments to have it looked over. You can book these appointments through MyFuture.

Finally, just be yourself and enjoy the day. We hope that you will come out of the fair with ideas, inspiration and knowledge that you can use further in  your career.

For more information, see our website for more details or on how to prepare for the Careers Fair, have a look at our Careers Fair Guide.

 

 

 

 

Careers Service in Top 10, according to Student Crowd reviews

📥  Uncategorized

 

We got excited in the Careers Service this week, as at our busiest time of year we were rewarded by a Top 10 place in the Student Crowd 2017 "Best Universities for Careers Services".  You can see the full list of winners here: https://www.studentcrowd.com/article/20-best-universities-for-career-services-2017

Over 7000 students were invited to review their University Careers Service, and it's great to know we are appreciated.  One of our favourite lines in the reviews was: "The careers services seem to be relentless which is exactly what you want!" Yes, we know it could sound negative to be "relentless", but we just don't want you to miss out on great opportunities to build your skills, meet employers, find great job and internship opportunities, and so on.

We aim to keep up the good work, so this Semester is packed with new services and events, all as a response to valuable student feedback. We've got more 1:1 appointments for CV feedback through a new Applications Advice service, more talks on different occupations such as teaching, law and the public sector, and special events to inspire students throughout the year.  We are fully settled into the Virgil Building for most of our 1:1 appointments, though postgraduates and final year undergraduates can access us on campus if they wish to do so.

Want to know more? Follow us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/bathunicareers or check out our web site www.bath.ac.uk/careers

 

 

 

Careers in the Civil Service

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📥  Advice, Career Choice, Careers Resources, Commercial Awareness, Finding a Job, Graduate Jobs, Internships, Sector Insight

Careers in the Civil Service


This blog post was originally posted by Sue Briault, but has been updated to include current information and links. For up to date news and information about Civil Service Fast Stream and for the chance of interacting with current fast streamers, make sure to like Civil Service Fast Stream Careers on Facebook


About the Civil Service

The Civil Service does the practical and administrative work of government. More than half of all civil servants provide services direct to the public. If you want to know more about the Civil Service and it's purpose then go here. If you are interested in the work of the more than 60 government departments and over 100 agencies then these can easily be found on the GOV UK website where every department and agency has a space.

Jobs within the Civil Service can range from administrative positions within departments to embassy posts with the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO).  There are also a number of professions employed within the Civil Service including economists, statisticians and scientists . Staff may work anywhere in the United Kingdom and possibly overseas, although the majority involved in policy work are located in London. There are increasing numbers of opportunities within the devolved regions and some departments are based in locations such as Bristol, Leeds, Sheffield, Newcastle, Edinburgh and Cardiff.

When applying to jobs in the civil service it is important to research the Civil Service competencies, which sets out how the Civil Service want people to work. Research the competencies and write down examples from your academic background, work experiences and/or extra-curricular activities to see how they compare and fit with each competency.

Civil Service Fast Stream

This is the accelerated development programme for graduates. Applications opened in September and will close in October 2017, so if you are interested, apply now! This includes entry into the Diplomatic Service. It is also possible to apply to the Civil Service Fast Stream even though you are working within the Civil Service.  There are several different Fast Streams and you can find more information about the schemes on the Fast Stream website.

  • Analytical Options (AFS):

Government Economic Service (GES)
Government Operational Research Service (GORS)
Government Statistical Service (GSS)
Government Social Research Service (GSR)

  • Other Options:

Generalist
Human Resources
Diplomatic Service
Diplomatic Economic Scheme
Houses of Parliament
Science and Engineering (only open to postgraduates)
Commercial
Finance
Government Communication Service
Project Delivery
Digital, Data and Technology
Other Civil Service Graduate Schemes

Other Graduate Schemes

Graduate schemes run by individual departments can be hard to find out about so keeping an eye on the Civil Service Jobs website is important as not all have dedicated webpages available to see year round (see  section below).

It is also worth noting that many Civil Service graduate schemes make offers of jobs at the grade below to ‘near misses’. This happens in the Fast Stream too. Those that scored only a few points below the overall benchmark may be made an offer or an interview for a role at Executive Officer grade (the grade below the one Fast Streamers start on). This isn’t always well publicised because employers don’t want to raise candidate expectations but it is worth being aware that applications to the Fast Stream or other Graduate Scheme can be a good entry point into the Civil Service.

Other services who recruit graduates include MI5, MI6 and GCHQ.

Other Civil Service Jobs

The place to look for all Civil Service vacancies is https://www.civilservicejobs.service.gov.uk. Create an account and you can then set up some preferences and then receive regular job updates by email. You will need to click "Show more" to be able to select Job Grade as a preference. Why should you look here? Because there are many jobs that would be suitable for graduates within the Civil Service that are not part of the Fast Stream or other Graduate Schemes.

Frequently spotted on Civil Service Jobs :

HMRC Social Researchers
Temporary Statistical Officers
Temporary Assistant Economists
Various individual Scientist Posts suitable for both undergraduates and postgraduates
Graduate Internships at Executive Officer level

Work Experience

There are two schemes available:

You will find that placements are available through your placement office in some government departments and others may be advertised through the Civil Service Jobs website mentioned previously. There is not a strong expectation that you will have gained experience within the Civil Service before applying for a graduate job there. Think about the competencies that they recruit against and develop your experience to demonstrate these.

Nationality Requirements

There is strict criteria regarding nationality for entry to the Civil Service and comprehensive guidelines are available here. Any job in the Civil Service is open to applicants who are UK nationals or have dual nationality (with one being British). About 75% of Civil Service posts are also open to Commonwealth citizens and nationals of any of the member states of the European Economic Area (EEA), although at some point this latter group will have their status changed once the UK's exit from the EU is settled. I am advised that the Civil Service is not a Tier 2 sponsor.

 

Every company needs a Data Scientist...

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📥  Career Choice, Careers Fairs, Graduate Jobs, inspire, Labour Market Intelligence

What if there was one skill you could acquire that would help you secure a job in any industry?
That skill set is: Data Science.

 

In a report published by IBM this year, demand for Data Scientists will soar by 28% in 2020. Key take aways from the report were:

  • 59% of all Data Science and Analytics (DSA) job demand is in Finance and Insurance, Professional Services, and IT.
  • By 2020 the number of Data Science and Analytics job vacancies are projected to grow to approximately 2,720,000.
  • Machine learning, big data, and data science skills are the most challenging to recruit for.

Think of the sheer amount of data available to organisations and individuals today. As a result, we are no longer able to rely on humans to derive any meaningful insights. Instead we are relying on algorithms which has given birth to the term machine learning. The field of Data Science is bit of a moving target, with new jobs emerging daily - however below are the key roles you may wish to consider:

  • Data Scientist / Engineer: I think this is one of those all encompassing titles. Every organisation can potentially benefit from someone who can analyse past performance of their business to predict future opportunities. The 'Data Scientist' role is more generalist and could be the first step into this field of work. You will need to be confident with stats and have the ability to communicate complex information in an accessible way.
  • Business Intelligence (BI) Analyst: According to Microsoft, BI is all about simplifying data so that it can easily be used by  decision makers within a business. This is a technology driven position, with few entry level roles.
  • Machine Learning Specialist: Machine Learning is a method of teaching computers to make and improve behaviours and predictions based on use of data. As an individual you'll need excellent attention to detail and the ability to think creatively.
  • Data Visualisation Specialist: this is an industry neutral role enabling you to work in any sector or business. The primary job is to creatively and appropriately visualise and present complex data. You'll need strong programming skills and knowledge of databases. This is a highly creative role.
  • Business Analytics Specialist: a role requiring you to be business and tech savvy! This is more of a project management role where you work with technical teams to implement projects internally or for your clients.

So, inspired to find out more? Why not come along to our Careers Fair on 19-20 October, over 200 employers will be on campus. You can use this opportunity to learn about how they are approaching the big data conundrum and the opportunities available to you once you graduate.

 

 

International students and working in the UK

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📥  Advice, Careers Service Update, Finding a Job, International Students, Tips & Hints, Work Experience

It's that time of year when lots of newly-arrived international students are coming into the Careers Service and asking what sorts of jobs they can be doing while also studying, in order to maximise their employability.

Now, this is not as simple a question to answer as I might like. And the consequences for international students if they get things wrong as regards what work and when are severe.

Fortunately, the experts in international student affairs, UKCISA, recently published an excellent blog on the subject which I am reposting in full, as it is comprehensive and accurate. I encourage any international student readers to have a look.

The source blog, with links, can be found here:

https://www.ukcisa.org.uk/blog/6257/A-working-definition

This is, of course, different from the work you can do after your studies - for individualised advice on this please contact our Student Immigration Advisers

There are many potential work opportunities for students, but does the Tier 4 work restriction allow you to do them? Andrew Humphrey looks at the ever-evolving world of work and business opportunities -- and the almost-never-evolving Tier 4 work conditions.

The world of work is changing. Many of us who work in the education sector can choose to work remotely from home, and we have opportunities for self-employment and for voluntary work. Plus, the tools of entrepreneurship and e-commerce are at everyone's fingertips these days. For me personally, as well as my job as an adviser and trainer with UKCISA I do some voluntary English teaching for a refugee charity, I am an independent Manager for a direct sales company, and I help my friends' 12-year-old son with his food blog and related social media.

So that’s all great for me, but what about you?  

Most Tier 4 students can work up to 20 hours a week during term time, although some are restricted to 10 hours, and some have a work prohibition. Check your visa vignette or biometric residence permit for your work conditions, and see UKCISA's guide to working during your studies.

If you can work, I'm sure you are keen to maximise your opportunities for paid work, for gaining work experience, and for the other social and cultural benefits of working. But have the changes in technology, communications, business practice and work culture in the UK that benefit me also expanded the work you can do within the Tier 4 work restriction? 

Yes. And no.

If you need to check whether a specific activity is allowed under your Tier 4 work conditions, it all starts with paragraph 6 of the Immigration Rules which defines "employment" for all types of visa. It says that  “employment includes”:

paid and unpaid employment,
paid and unpaid work placements undertaken as part of a course or period of study
self employment
engaging in business or any professional activity
That word “includes” allows for other activities to be considered employment.  The specific types of employment that a Tier 4 migrant can take are listed in Paragraph 245ZW(c)(iii) of the Immigration Rules.  This says that you can take “No employment, except…”, followed by a list numbered (1) to (8) of what you can do. The list confirms that:

“Paid and unpaid employment” is fine, within your 20 (or 10) hours per week restriction during term-time, and with no time limit in vacations.
There is a prohibition on working as a Doctor or Dentist in training, in professional sports including coaching, and on working as an entertainer. 
“Paid and unpaid work placements undertaken as part of a course or period of study” are separate from "paid or unpaid employment", so you can do both at the same time.
Being “self-employed” or being “engaged in business activity” is not allowed. Being self-employed normally means you are not on the employer's payroll but rather you manage your own workload, pay and tax. There is guidance on the gov.uk website to help ascertain if you are self-employed. For "business activity" the Tier 4 policy guidance for applicants gives three examples, including setting up as a sole trader. The three examples are “not an exhaustive list” but rather “examples of the types of circumstance in which you will be considered to be engaged in business activity.” 
You can work as a student union sabbatical officer.
If you apply to switch to Tier 2, Tier 4 Doctorate Extension Scheme or Tier 1 Graduate Entrepreneur, you can start the specific work that is allowed under those schemes.
Neither the Immigration Rules nor any related immigration guidance go into any further detail. This means that if your proposed employment does not fit securely into this definition, or if it is a "grey area", doing the work would be risky.  And what are the risks exactly?  Well, the Home Office treats work conditions very seriously.  They can remove you from the UK if you work too many hours or if you do work that you are not allowed to do. If you are removed, you may face a ban on re-entry for a certain period of time. The employer also faces penalties. Strictly speaking, your university or college is also obliged to report to the Home Office any students who are working illegally.

As an international student adviser, I am obliged to warn you about these dangers of illegal working, but please do not panic. 

First, stay focused on your current main purpose in the UK: full-time study.  

Second, remember that a Tier 4 visa specifically and explicitly does provide opportunities for work, but in effect just the sort of part-time and vacation work that international students have done for many generations. While this can be frustrating, it is very important to not take risks. It may seem preposterous for me to warn you against trading on eBay or babysitting, as I do below, but that is because the Immigration Rules and guidance lack any nuance about work that does not fall fair and square into standard part-time and vacation work for an employer.

Third, beware of taking advice about working from other students or from people on internet message boards. For a professional student immigration adviser like me it is worrying and discouraging to see students asking anonymous strangers online for immigration advice when they have access to trained, professional and FREE immigration advice at their university.  Your international student adviser is always the best source of information about any aspect of student immigration and visas. See also UKCISA's detailed guide to working during your studies here on this website.

What follows are some types of work that students ask about, and my replies about whether it is safe to do them within the Tier 4 work conditions. In every case I am referring back to the definitions above. 

A quick note about income tax in the UK:  income tax is normally deducted by your employer from your wages or salary under the Pay As You Earn scheme. If you receive income from other sources, for example tips, rent from a property you own, or other one-off payments this income may be liable for income tax.  For more details see the UK government's guide to who needs to file a tax return.

 

Professional sport
You cannot work as a professional sportsperson. This is defined in paragraph 6 of the Immigration Rules, and it normally means someone who is working in professional or semi-professional sport (paid or unpaid). It does also include someone who “in the past derived … a living from playing or coaching, [and who] is providing services as a sportsperson or coach at any level of sport”. However there is an exception if the current activity is “solely for personal enjoyment and [you are] not seeking to derive a living from the activity”.  So a student with a background in professional sports can coach a sports team as long as it is unpaid. This unpaid work counts towards the weekly 10 or 20 hours limit.

Any other sporting activities you do would normally be amateur, not professional. This includes being on a local or university sports team, and taking part in more formal organised events like the London Marathon or the Great North Run where you can participate alongside professionals.  

Large international sporting events often recruit temporary staff but this would come under the normal rules for part-time work.

 

Entertainer
You cannot work (paid or unpaid) as an entertainer. “Entertainer” is not defined in the Immigration Rules, but the Home Office's Business Help desk has stated (in an email dated 3 September 2015) that "We take it to mean … taking part in entertainment in any way other than as an amateur".  "Amateur" is defined in the Immigration Rules at paragraph 6 and it means “solely for personal enjoyment and not seeking to derive a living from the activity”. Therefore acting or performing as an amateur or just as a hobby is not working as an entertainer, and you can do it.  

There is also an exception for any performance that is an assessed part of your course. This is a concession contained in the Tier 4 sponsor guidance only (paragraph 6.8), not in the Immigration Rules.

See the separate information below on performing in television talent shows.

 

Resident Warden “on call”
If your total number of hours on duty, including overnight, are within your weekly maximum 10 or 20 hours anyway (including any other paid or unpaid work you are doing), that is fine.

However if counting all the hours on call, including any when you are not actively working or even asleep, would take you over your weekly 10 or 20 hour maximum, we advise that you get individual advice from both the Housing Services and the Human Resources departments at the university before accepting the job. The university may consider the whole on-call period as your working hours and pay you accordingly, or they may not.

In 2016 the Human Resources magazine Personnel Today published an interesting article about this issue, including links to relevant Employment Appeal Tribunal cases.

 

Selling on eBay, Amazon, Etsy, etc.
You can do this as long as you are not “trading”. The UK government's guidance on working for yourself says that “you’re probably not trading if you sell some unwanted items occasionally or you don’t plan to make a profit.” 

However one of the specific examples of “trading” is if you sell or make items for profit or if you “sell online, at car boot sales or through classified adverts on a regular basis”.  The information says “If you start working for yourself, you’re classed as a sole trader. This means you’re self-employed - even if you haven’t yet told HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC).”

 

Volunteering
Volunteering does not count towards your maximum 10 or 20 hours if it meets the definition of volunteering in the Tier 4 policy guidance (paragraph 315):

Students who are volunteering do not have a contract, they must not be a substitute for an employee and they must not be doing unpaid work – i.e. receiving payment in kind (although they are sometimes reimbursed for reasonable travel and subsistence expenses). Volunteers usually help a charity or voluntary or public sector organisation.

Any other kind of unpaid or voluntary work that does not meet this definition will count towards your weekly 10 or 20 hours maximum.
 

Online business, e-commerce
You cannot run a business at all while you are in the UK. The Immigration Rules give no exceptions for online businesses or for businesses where all the clients are outside the UK.
 

Passive income from affiliate marketing, clicks on your YouTube videos, etc.
While this is not one of the three named examples of “business activity” in the Tier 4 Policy Guidance (paragraph 308), it would reasonably be defined as a business activity, so best not do it while you are in the UK.

Someone who has become a YouTube celebrity after studying in the UK is Seong-jae Kong, known as Korean Billy. As part of our 2017 conference, Billy spoke to UKCISA about his time as an international student in the UK and how it has inspired his new career.
 

Working for an employer outside the UK
If you are physically outside the UK, your Tier 4 work conditions are irrelevant.  You need to check what are your work rights in the specific country where you are working.  However any work you do when you are physically in the UK, for example working for a non-UK employer remotely or doing a "virtual internship" with them counts towards your weekly 10 or 20 hour maximum. This is because the work restriction has no specific exception to not count work undertaken remotely for an employer who is outside the UK.

 

Digital nomad
A digital nomad is someone who harnesses technology, cyberspace and portals like Fiverr to create a freelance online working life that disregards international borders. They may spend time living in different countries, either making a living from freelance work conducted and sourced online, or through sources of "passive income".

This a very attractive idea in theory, and technology makes it perfectly feasible, but in reality it is only possible if your immigration status in the country where you are staying allows you to do freelance work. Your Tier 4 work conditions do not allow it, so you cannot be a digital nomad while you are living in the UK.

 

Owning or dealing in shares
You can buy and own shares, but if you own more than 10% of the shares in the company (including if they are held in trust for you) you cannot work for the company.  This is one of the specific examples of “business activity” in the Tier 4 Policy Guidance.

If you regularly buy and sell shares in order to make money, this is likely to be seen as “business activity”. If you make a dividend income from shares you own, you must pay income tax on this income.

 

Bitcoin mining
Neither the Immigration Rules nor any related guidance makes any specific provision for Bitcoin mining. It would be safest to assume that it is a “business activity”.

Separately, HMRC clarified in 2014 that any profits from Bitcoin mining are liable for income tax.

 

"Gig economy" jobs:  Uber, Deliveroo, DPD, MyHermes, etc.
This sort of work is self-employment so someone with Tier 4 leave cannot do it.

Some recent employment law tribunal cases have encouraged some of these companies to give their contractors some of the benefits of being employees. Uber is currently challenging this but whatever the outcome of the challenge, it seems likely that such work will still be seen as self-employment.

For more information about how gig economy jobs fit in the working regulations, see the May 2017 Department of Work and Pensions report on self-employment and the gig economy. 

 

Direct sales: Amway, Avon, Tupperware, Thermomix, etc.
You cannot do this because independent consultants for direct sales companies are self-employed.  The company will not check your right to work because they are not your employer:  it is up to the individual consultant to monitor their own self-employment and any attached responsibilities, including whether their immigration status allows them to do the work.

 

Incoming from owning a property
Owning a property and deriving an income from rent is not self-employment, but you must pay income tax on the income you receive from rent.

 

Television talent shows, media appearances and contests of skill
In this tabloid newspaper article about a Chinese couple who entered the "Britain's Got Talent" contest in 2017 the producers of that specific programme say that participating is not considered employment and that winning the cash prize is not payment for employment.

If you decide to enter a contest that involves skills or performing, whether it is televised or not, check at an early stage whether the organisers have the same view that it is not employment. Of course, you will also need to check whether your academic schedule allows you the time to participate. 

It is possible that a paid or compensated appearance on television or in other media may be seen as a business opportunity.  However students with Tier 4 visas do sometimes participate in the popular academic television quiz show University Challenge. A very popular contestant in the programme's recent season was Eric Monkman, a postgraduate student from Canada. Monkman later returned to the UK to do a journalism internship and during this time (presumably now with a work visa) he was able to work on the BBC Radio 4 programme Monkman and Seagull's Polymathic Adventure.

 

Writing and publishing
When you formally publish your writing, even self-publishing on Amazon, you are usually hoping that that people will buy it and that you will earn some money. Therefore it is highly likely to be seen as a business activity and you may not do it under a Tier 4 visa.

To avoid this, if you want to publish your writing or other work purely as an artistic expression or leisure activity, do it through a (non-monetised) blog or personal website. 

 

Focus groups, clinical trials
If you take part in a focus group, clinical trial or other similar experiment you are normally given some cash and usually some food and drink. The organisers will need to check your identity, usually your passport, but this is for their own statistical purposes not to check of your right to work because they do not consider it employment but "paid volunteering".

However, it would not meet the narrow definition of "volunteering" in the Tier 4 Policy Guidance (see above), so it does count towards your weekly maximum permitted working hours.

And while it is not self-employment, HMRC advises that payments for taking part in very well-paid clinical trials could be seen as income that is liable for tax:

There will be no tax or NIC liability arising on the individual if the sums received do no more than reimburse the individual’s reasonable costs of participating in the trial or research, including costs of travel and subsistence.

However should the sums paid exceed those reasonable expenses then the excess may fall to be chargeable to tax as Miscellaneous Income, potentially giving rise to personal tax liabilities of the individuals which should be notified to the Inland Revenue under Self Assessment.

 

Babysitting or dog-walking
Missing your young relatives? Wish you could have a pet in your student housing?

You can do dog-walking or babysitting while you are in the UK, but under the Tier 4 work restriction you can only do it unpaid.  This might seem overly strict, but remember that providing any service for payment, including babysitting, dog-walking or anything paid “cash in hand” is likely to be seen as self-employment or, at the very least, a "business activity".

My advice is treat these activities not as paid work but as a social opportunity and as a chance to experience aspects of the local culture different from your student life.

If you miss your young relatives, why not offer to babysit for free.  Think of the non-financial benefits: it's a fun and interesting opportunity to meet some local families and children and see how they live. Plus free WiFi and snacks usually come as standard.

Student housing normally does not normally allow pets, but the website BorrowMyDoggy.com connects you with local dogs who need walking and company, or where the owner just wants to give non-pet owners the chance to spend time with their dog. Walking a dog may give you an insight into the British public that you do not normally see, especially in cities: people will smile, stop to pet the dog, and ask you its name, breed, age, etc. Try it!   

 

Andrew Humphrey is an Advice and Training Officer at UKCISA. References to and quotes from the Immigration Rules and related guidance were correct at the time of publication, but they may change.